備望録

備忘録/英語/Jazz/ギター/将棋/

英検一級二次対策 メディア②

④Will electronic media replace almost all printed media in the future?(電子媒体は将来的にほとんど完全に紙媒体にとって代わるか)

個人的には紙の本の手触りも好きだが、電子書籍の利便性のメリットの方が言いやすい。立場はイエスでアーギュメントは以下。

・Electronic media is more convenient than printed materials. For example, you don't need to carry heavy books or many text books if you use electronic media. And as another example, you can find unknown word in the electronic book by just dragging the word.

・Electronic media will promote environmental protection. It will greatly reduce paper consumption thus contribute to solve shortage problem about paper resources. It can also reduce environmental pollution caused by transportation of huge amountof books.

・Electronic media is far less expensive than printed media mainly because of its much lower production costs. For example, e-books are 40 to 70% cheaper than printed materials.

3つ目のアーギュメントに関して、電子メディアの方が機械を買う分高くつくのでは?と聞かれたら

Although it needs some expensive machine, e- books user can quickly recoup the initial investment because of its cost-effectiveness.

と捌く。

⑤Do the advantages of advertising outweigh its disadvantages(広告のメリットはデメリットを上回るか)

立場はイエスでアーギュメントは以下。

・Advertisement boosts the economy by stimulating consumption. Companies can increase their sales by enhancing their purchase motivation.

・Advertisement is a good information source for consumers. Consumers can know about many attractive products through TV CM, web site advertisement and promotion video. Consumers make good decision in shopping because of these informative advertisement.

商品の性能を誇張した広告もあるのではという反論には

When you decided to buy a product, we need to check it on the Internet to know it more specifically.

と捌く。

英検一級二次対策 メディア①

メディアの功罪や弊害、さらに細かくSNS、インターネット、電子書籍などについても聞かれる。いずれのトピックについても、メリット・デメリット・対応策などについて意見をまとめておく。

①Do the benefits of SNS outweigh the disadvantages?(SNSのメリットはデメリットを上回るか)

メリット

・簡単に情報収集ができる(access information easily)

・多くのひとに情報を発信できる(send information to many people)

・企業にとってはよい広告になる(good advertisement  for companies)

・遠く離れた友人とも頻繁に連絡を取れる(stay in touch with friends regardless of geographical condition)

デメリット

・不特定多数の人にプライバシーが晒される(privacy is exposed to a lot of unknown people)

・誤った情報が多々ある(wrong information)

・時間を浪費して(time-wasting)QOLの低下に繫がる(lead to undermining QOL)

情報化の時代、そしてSNSが普及している事実を踏まえると、メリットの方が強いように思える。以上を踏まえてアーギュメントは以下。

SNS improves human relationships. SNS helps people stay in touch with friends they cannot see regularly. SNS also helps shy or socially isorated people connect with other people. AIthough some people point out it is time-wasting, human relationships are valuable assets.

SNS make it easy to send useful information to many users. For example, when natural disasters like earthquakes happen, people can share detailed information about the disaster and evacuation. Although some people point out security problem of privacy, most users have net-etiquette called netiquette.

SNS will boost business because it work as cost-effective advertisement. For example, companies can increase their sales by attracting millions of users of twitter and facebook by using promotion advertisement on SNS.

 

②Does the benefit of of the internet outweigh its disadvantages?(インターネットのメリットはデメリットを上回るか)

情報社会の恩恵を享受している今の時代、インターネットを否定するのは難しいだろう。立場はイエスとしてアーギュメントは以下。

・The internet is a great source of information, which allows people to fid various kinds of information. For example, when you want to cook a pizza but you don't know how to cook, you can find high-quolity its recipe on the internet and even watch videos which explain how to cook it.

・The internet will expand business opprtunities through SNS and online advertising, thus contributes to national and glabal economic growth.

・The internet will widen educational opportunities. For example, e-learning system enable poor people to recieve high-quolity and cost-effective class through the internet.

・Although some people point out its disadvantages such as harmful web site for adolescent, ciber crime, I think its benefits far outweigh these this advantages.

なお、上記のデメリットに対しては

It's important for internet users to learn/develop media literacy so in that cace, you have to be more careful and cross-reference several web site.

It's important to upgrade your sofyware state of the art because it prevent you from ciber crime. In addition, changing your password regularly is also effective way in the point of security.

などと捌く。

③Should playing online games be discouraged?(オンラインゲームはやめさせるべきか)

エスでアーギュメントは以下。

・Online games are addictive enough to deprive people of their valuable time to spend on more productive activities such as study and exercise. Studing makes people more logical and academic, sophisticated, and exercicing make them more phisically strong and healthly.

・Online games can undermine player's health by increasing their sedantly bahaver and exposure of computer screens. I will be the cause of bad posture, eyestrain, and metabolic syndrome.

学習目的のゲームは子供の学力向上にとってよいのでは?と返されたら

・These kinds of games accounts for only a small percentage. MOst games are merely for entertaining porposes.

・Considering its health risk such as eyestrain, sleep deprivation, bad posture, and metabolic syndrome, I think that these disadvantages far outweigh its advantages.

などと捌く。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

英検一級二次対策 環境①

①Is environmental protection copartible with economic growth?(環境保護は経済成長と相性がよいか)

立場はイエス。アーギュメントは以下。

・The development of eco-friendly technologies creates huge job opportunities, which is boon espcially to job seeking young people. With the increasing demands of green industry like recycling, eco-friendly cars, renewable energy, they can get such jobs and thus environmental protection boost economy.

・Companies eco-consciousness contributes to success in their business by enhancing their reputation. With the increasing awareness about the importance of campanies' environmental protection, their good reputaion attract more comsumers and investers, thus increasing their sales and profits.

 

②How serious are current environmental problems?(今日の環境問題はどれくらい深刻か)

www.conserve-energy-future.com

環境問題が簡潔にまとめてある海外のサイトがあったので、それを抜粋していくつか。

(以下抜粋)

’’1. Pollution: Pollution of air, water and soil require millions of years to recoup. Industry and motor vehicle exhaust are the number one pollutants. Heavy metals, nitrates and plastic are toxins responsible for pollution. (中略)

2. Global Warming: Climate changes like global warming is the result of human practices like emission of Greenhouse gases. Global warming leads to rising temperatures of the oceans (中略)

7. Loss of Biodiversity: Human activity is leading to the extinction of species and habitats and and loss of bio-diversity. Eco systems, which took millions of years to perfect, are in danger when any species population is decimating. (中略)

10. Ozone Layer Depletion: The ozone layer is an invisible layer of protection around the planet that protects us from the sun’s harmful rays. Depletion of the crucial Ozone layer of the atmosphere is attributed to pollution caused by Chlorine and Bromide found in Chloro-floro carbons (CFC’s). Once these toxic gases reach the upper atmosphere, they cause a hole in the ozone layer, the biggest of which is above the Antarctic.  Ozone layer is valuable because it prevents harmful UV radiation from reaching the earth.’’

 

③Can animal testing be justified?(動物実験は正当化されうるか) 

世界的にも論争を醸している、意見が割れそうなトピック。反論されたときの返しやすさを考えてイエスの立場を取る。アーギュメントは以下。

・The most important reaon of animal testing is to save people suffering from incurable disease. It has greatly contributed to the development of medicine, which saving people from deadly disease. For example, the vaccines of for polio and smallpox, which first tested on monkeys and cows respectively, grestly helped to eliminate the diseases thus saving millions of people. 

・Animal testing will boost the economy by developing medical industly including pharmaceutical industry. The medical industry is a high value-addad industry so it boost the economy.

・There is no effective alternative to animal testing because of genetic similarity between human and animals. For example, chinpanzees share 92% and even mice share 92% of human genes. Other alternatives like computer simulation cannot produce equally results.

 

 

英検一級二次対策 科学②

②Do the benefits of genetic engineering outweigh the dangers?(遺伝子工学の利益は危険を上回るか)

メリット・デメリットは以下の通り。全体としてはメリットが上回る。

メリット

遺伝子組み換え食品の導入で飢餓を緩和する(alleviate world hunger by producingte genetically modified foods)

遺伝子工学により難病や不治の病の治療ができる(genetic engineering can cure intractable and incurerable disease)

デメリット

・倫理的な問題(ethical problem)

②Has technology changed education for the better?(科学技術は教育をより良くしたか)

立場はイエス。アーギュメントは以下。

・Interactive multimedia technology is useful for teachers to enhance students learning effectiveness. For example, audiovisual images or games using device make the class more engaging and entertaining.  

・Students can develop research skills effectively because they can have easy acsess to a wealth of information on the internet.

・E-learning gives people more opportunities to study at much more reasonable costs regardless of their geographical conditions.

④Agree or disagree:space explorarion shoud be continued

賛成でアーギュメントは以下。

・Space exploration promote the development of scientific research and thus contributes progress of inscience and technology. For example, monitoring from space make foreast more accurately and GPS for car navigation system is byproduct of space exploration. In addiion, We can surf the internet almost anywhere in the world because of space explorarions

・Space exploration will boost the economy as it is very lucrative business. it is high return on investiment as it is said that in todays economic situation, one dollar investiment on space exploration will change 10 dollars. So it is vert lucrative business and thus promote economic growth.

 

フロイトに学ぶ

☆自我防衛機制

・同一視・・・目標とする人と自分を重ね合わせる

・抑圧・・・衝動・記憶・イメージを意識から追放

・転換・・・心の葛藤が体の症状に現れる

・反動形成・・・抑圧した感情と正反対の態度

・投影・・・自身の感情を他者に投影

・合理化・・・自分の行為に正当性を後付け

・補償・・・得意なことを強調して苦手をカバー

・昇華・・・満たされない欲求を他の行為で満たす

・打ち消し・・・負の感情を引き起こす行為をした後にそれを打ち消す行為を行う

・置き換え・・・認めがたい感情を代理の対象に向ける

・知性化・・・認めがたい感情を知的な振る舞いでごまかす

・退行・・・認めがたい感情、葛藤から逃れるために幼児状態に戻る

英検一級二次対策 科学①

続いて科学。科学技術の進歩がインターネット、ロボット、宇宙など様々な形で現れるので、各々どのようなメリット・デメリットがあるのかを考える。

①Should nuclear power be promoted?(原子力は推進されるべきか)

政治③で一度原子力の是非には非の立場を取ったので、同様にそこで述べた原発核兵器のデメリットを述べてもいいが、面接大特訓に書いてある賛成のアーギュメントの展開が説得力の塊なので、それを参考にしてみる。

・Nuclear power is a clean energy source that produces no greenhouse gases. Unlike fossil fuels, it can generate a huge amount of electricity without emitting carbon dioxide. With the growing threat of grobal warming, we should promote nuclear power to reduce CO2 emissions.

・Nuclear power is a stable energy source can meet the increasing glabal enerdy demands. Renewable energy like solar and wind power are not stable enough to meet the glabal energy needs. Nuclear power can supply a large amount of sustainable energy and thus greatly promote industrial growth.

・Nuclear power generation is more cost-effective than any other form of power generation. For example, one gram of uranium can generate power equivalent to three tons of coal in thermal power generation, and it is about 3000 times less expensive. This cost-effectiveness will greatly contribute to economic growth.

 

 

 

 

英検一級二次対策 医療①

今回は医療分野。内容が多岐に渡るのでトピックごとに考えていく。

①Do the benefits of euthanasia outweigh the disadvantages?(安楽死の利益はデメリットを上回るか)

日本語でも話すのが難しい。合理主義気味の自分としてはイエスの立場で安楽死の重要性を説きたいところ。

メリット

・患者の激痛(agonizing pain)を取り除き、人間としての尊厳を守る(the right to die with dignity)

・高額な延命治療(life prolonging/survival treatment)代を減らし、家族・政府の経済的負担を減らす(reduce the financial burden)

デメリット

・人の手で命の終わりを決めることは残虐である(inhumane)

・不治の病の研究を遅らせる(undermmine the speed of medical research of incurable disease)

人道的なデメリットを指摘されたときは、

それは理想論であり、現実には助かる見込みがないのにつらい痛みに苦しんでいる人がたくさんいる。そのような状況の中で、安楽死は1つの有効な手段である(It's just an idealistic thought. In the real, many people are suffring from excruciating pain who have no chance to cure. Considering the situation, mercy killing is one of the effective ways for patients)

と捌く。

 

②What county has the best healthcare system in the world?(どの国の医療制度が世界一か)

日本くらいしか詳しく語れなさそうなので日本にする。本当は医療費無料のフィンランドとかについて語れればいいのだけど。オバマケアで意見が分かれるアメリカは、好例には挙げにくい印象。

日本の医療制度のいいところ

国民皆保険制度(universal healthcare system)により、国民の経済的負担が少ない

・所得や年齢により医療費が割引されるので、社会的弱者に優しい(advantageous to socially vulnerable people)

・質の高い医療が受けられる(take high quality madical treatment)

 

③What are the cause/countermeasure of mental illnesses?(精神病の原因/対策は何か)

原因

・日常生活から来るストレス:人間関係、仕事、バイト、面接、テスト、勉強

・トラウマ体験

対策

・カウンセラー(mental health professionals)や病院に相談する

・家族や友人に悩みを打ち明ける(speak trouble)

・気分転換できる趣味をもつ(have a hobby which makes you refresh)

 

④Should smoking banned in public places?(喫煙は公共の場で禁止されるべきか)

頻出のトピック。専門用語も確実に押さえておきたい。立場はイエスで理由は以下。

・有害物質:ニコチン・タール を多く含む受動喫煙(sidestream smoking)から非喫煙者(nonsmokers)を守る

・たばこのポイ捨て(cigarette litering)を減らし景観美化に繫がる(promote to keep town clean)

・たばこの消費量が減りCO2の排出を抑える(cut/minimize CO2 emission)

・喫煙所を作るお金の節約(save money for creating smoking area)

面接官の反論には以下のように捌く。

・Don't you think that smoking ban in public place will decrease the customers in reataurants and cafes and therefore will under mine the local economy?

→In the short run, those bussiness will lose heavy smoking customers, but in the long run, it will attract more customers because a growing number of health-conscious customers will come these place to relax in the smoke-free environment.

・Don't you think that the decreased number of smokers will undermine the national economy?

→Entirely, advantages of smoke-regulation will outweigh disadvantages because whole economic profits of smoking like tabacco tax revenue and benefits of tabacco-related industries is much fewer than whole economic loss of smoking like medical costs, declining smokers' productivity.